240 When Used On Children, Acupuncture Is Considered Safe When Administered By Well-trained, Licensed Practitioners Using Sterile Needles; However, A 2011 Review Found There Was Limited Research To Draw Definite Conclusions About The Overall Safety Of Paediatric Acupuncture.

Some.f.he.ites acupuncturists use needles at today still have the same names as this given to them by the Yellow empower's Classic. 29 :93 Numerous additional documents were published over the centuries introducing new acupoints. 29 :101 By the 4th century AD, most of the acupuncture sites in use today had been named and identified. 29 :101 In the first half of the 1st century AD, acupuncturists began promoting the belief that acupuncture's effectiveness was influenced by the time of day acupuncture education or night, the lunar cycle, and the season. 29 :140-141 The Science of the Yin-Yang Cycles yen chi Hsüeh was a set of beliefs of the skin by thin metal needles, which are manipulated manually or the needle may be further stimulated by electrical stimulation electro acupuncture. 2 Acupuncture needles are typically made of stainless steel, making them flexible and preventing them from rusting or breaking. 46 Needles are usually disposed of after each use to prevent contamination. 46 Reusable needles when used shGould be sterilized between applications. 46 47 Needles vary in length between 13 to 130 millimetres 0.51 to 5.12 in, with shorter needles used near the face and eyes, and longer needles in areas with thicker tissues; needle diameters vary from 0.16 mm 0.006 in to 0.46 mm 0.018 in, 48 with thicker needles used on more robust patients. Even.f.hey.ould agree, the ACM theories are so nebulous that no amount of scientific study will enable ACM to offer rational care.” 5 Some modern practitioners support the use of acupuncture to treat pain, but have abandoned the use of qi, meridians, yin, yang and other energies based in mysticism, as explanatory frameworks. 8 25 26 The use of qi as an explanatory framework has been decreasing in China, even as it becomes more prominent during discussions of acupuncture in the US. 257 Academic discussions of acupuncture still make reference to pseudo-scientific concepts such as qi and meridians despite the lack of scientific evidence. 257 Many within the scientific community consider attempts to rationalize acupuncture in science to be quackery, pseudo-science and “theatrical placebo”. 258 Academics Massimo Pigliucci and marten Boudry describe it as a “borderlands science” lying between science and pseudo-science. 259 Many acupuncturists attribute pain relief to the release of endorphins when needles penetrate, but no longer support the idea that acupuncture can affect a disease. 26 257 It is a generally held belief within the acupuncture community that acupuncture points and meridians structures are special conduits for electrical signals but no research has established any consistent anatomical structure or function for either acupuncture points or meridians. n 1 24 Human tests to determine whether electrical continuity was significantly different near meridians than other places in the body have been inconclusive. 24 Some studies suggest acupuncture causes a series of events within the central nervous system, 260 and that it is possible to inhibit acupuncture's analgesic effects with the opioid antagonist naloxone . 261 Mechanical deformation of the skin by acupuncture needles appears to result in the release of adenosine . 2 The anti-nociceptive effect of acupuncture may be mediated by the adenosine A1 receptor . 262 A 2014 Nature Reviews Cancer review article found that since the key mouse studies that suggested acupuncture relieves of injecting purified, diluted bee venom into acupoints. 66 A 2006 review of veterinary acupuncture found that there is insufficient evidence to “recommend or reject acupuncture for any condition in domestic animals”. 67 Rigorous evidence for complementary and alternative techniques is lacking in veterinary medicine but evidence has been growing. 68 Acupressure being applied to a hand. Over time, the focus shifted from blood to the concept of puncturing specific points on of the composer Hector Berlioz is usually credited with being the first to experiment with the procedure in Europe in 1810, before publishing his findings in 1816. 276 By the 19th century, acupuncture had become commonplace in many areas of the world. 29 :295 Americans and Britons began showing interest in acupuncture in the early 19th century but interest waned by mid century. 27 Western practitioners abandoned acupuncture's traditional beliefs in spiritual energy, pulse diagnosis, and the cycles of the moon, sun or the body's rhythm.

The.Judy.lso.ncludes.arnings.gainst.ractising acupuncture on infants, as well as on Phildren who are over-fatigued, very weak, or have overeaten. 240 When used on children, acupuncture is considered safe when administered by well-trained, licensed practitioners using sterile needles; however, a 2011 review found there was limited research to draw definite conclusions about the overall safety of paediatric acupuncture. 3 The same review found 279 adverse events, 25 of them serious. 3 The adverse events were mostly mild in nature e.g. bruising or bleeding. 3 The prevalence of mild adverse events ranged from 10.1% to 13.5%, an estimated 168 incidences among 1,422 patients. 3 On rare occasions adverse events were serious e.g. cardiac rupture or hemoptysis ; much might have been a result of substandard practice. 3 The incidence of serious adverse events was 5 per one million, which included children and adults. 3 When used during pregnancy, the majority of adverse events caused by acupuncture were mild and transient, with few serious adverse events. 241 The most frequent mild adverse event was needling or unspecified pain, followed by bleeding. 241 Although two deaths one stillbirth and one neonatal death were reported, there was a lack of acupuncture-associated maternal mortality. 241 Limiting the evidence as certain, probable or possible in the causality evaluation, the estimated incidence of adverse events following acupuncture in pregnant women was 131 per 10,000. 241 Although acupuncture is not contraindicated in pregnant women, some specific acupuncture points are particularly sensitive to needle insertion; these spots, as well as the abdominal region, shGould be avoided during pregnancy. 2 Four adverse events associated with moxibustion were bruising, burns and cellulitis, spinal epidural abscess, and large superficial basal cell carcinoma. 16 Ten adverse events were associated with cupping. 16 The minor ones were keloid scarring, burns, and bullae ; 16 the serious ones were acquired haemophilia A, stroke following cupping on the back and neck, factitious panniculitis, reversible cardiac hypertrophy, and iron deficiency anaemia . 16 A 2013 meta-analysis found that acupuncture for chronic low back pain was cost-effective as a complement to standard care, but not as a substitute for standard care except in cases where co morbid depression presented. 19 The same meta-analysis found there was no difference between sham and non-sham acupuncture. 19 A 2011 systematic review found insufficient evidence for the cost-effectiveness of acupuncture in the treatment of chronic low back pain. 20 A 2010 systematic review found that the cost-effectiveness of acupuncture could not be concluded. of Health NIH declared support for acupuncture for some conditions in November 1997. Diagrams.f the flow of spiritual energy, for example, 1462-0324 . Even.f.hey.ould agree, the ACM theories are so nebulous that no amount of scientific study will enable ACM to offer rational care.” 5 Some modern practitioners support the use of acupuncture to treat pain, but have abandoned the use of qi, meridians, yin, yang and other energies based in mysticism, as explanatory frameworks. 8 25 26 The use of qi as an explanatory framework has been decreasing in China, even as it becomes more prominent during discussions of acupuncture in the US. 257 Academic discussions of acupuncture still make reference to pseudo-scientific concepts such as qi and meridians despite the lack of scientific evidence. 257 Many within the scientific community consider attempts to rationalize acupuncture in science to be quackery, pseudo-science and “theatrical placebo”. 258 Academics Massimo Pigliucci and marten Boudry describe it as a “borderlands science” lying between science and pseudo-science. 259 Many acupuncturists attribute pain relief to the release of endorphins when needles penetrate, but no longer support the idea that acupuncture can affect a disease. 26 257 It is a generally held belief within the acupuncture community that acupuncture points and meridians structures are special conduits for electrical signals but no research has established any consistent anatomical structure or function for either acupuncture points or meridians. n 1 24 Human tests to determine whether electrical continuity was significantly different near meridians than other places in the body have been inconclusive. 24 Some studies suggest acupuncture causes a series of events within the central nervous system, 260 and that it is possible to inhibit acupuncture's analgesic effects with the opioid antagonist naloxone . 261 Mechanical deformation of the skin by acupuncture needles appears to result in the release of adenosine . 2 The anti-nociceptive effect of acupuncture may be mediated by the adenosine A1 receptor . 262 A 2014 Nature Reviews Cancer review article found that since the key mouse studies that suggested acupuncture relieves acupuncture to cause bleeding, while others mixed the ideas of blood-letting and spiritual ch'i energy. If de-qi can not be generated, then inaccurate location of the acupoint, improper depth of needle insertion, inadequate manual manipulation, China and established acupuncture as one of five divisions of the Chinese State Medical Administration System. 29 :264-265 Acupuncture began to spread to Europe in the second half of the 17th century.

Acupuncture

It restricts the use of words like “Acupuncture” and “Registered Acupuncturist”. citation needed At least 28 countries in Europe have professional associations for acupuncturists. 303 In France, the Académie rationale de Médecine National Academy of Medicine has regulated acupuncture since 1955. 304 ^ From Latin, aces needle and puncture to puncture 1 ^ a b c sigh & Ernst 2008 stated, “Scientists of Health NIH declared support for acupuncture for some conditions in November 1997. Plinio Prioreschi, the earliest known historical record of acupuncture is the Shih-Chi “Record of History”, written by a historian around 100 BC. 28 It is believed that this text was documenting what was established practice at Association of Canada are used in provinces without government regulation. 287 Regulation in the US began in the 1970s 301 in California, which was eventually followed by every state but Wyoming and Idaho. 299 302 Licensing requirements vary greatly from state to state. Japanese reprint by Suharaya Heisuke Sun simian published acupuncture-related diagrams and charts that established standardized methods for finding acupuncture sites on people of different sizes and categorized acupuncture sites in a set of modules. 29 Acupuncture became more established in China as improvements in paper led to the publication of more acupuncture books.